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Showing posts from October 17, 2010


I. The importance of a research proposal An application for a research degree (MPhil or PhD) must be accompanied by a research proposal. The statement is an essential component of the admission process for the following reasons: 1. You may only gain admission if there is a member of staff who is able to offer adequate supervision. Your proposal will be passed to members of staff with research interests in the area who will indicate whether they are able to offer you supervision. 2. The Law School must consider whether it possesses adequate resources to support your proposed research, such as books, journals and law reports. We expect PhD students to visit other institutions and libraries but we must ensure that there is a sufficiently comprehensive ‘core’ of materials available here. 3. Your proposal is a means of assessing whether you have given sufficient thought to the demands of a PhD programme and whether you have undertaken sufficient preliminary research into the topic. II. Cho

Risks in foreign exchange dealings

Following types of risks are involved in foreign exchange dealings. Market risk: Loss arising out of change in the market price of an asset Liquidity risk: risk that you will not be able to easily sell your assets Operational risk: Failure of internal processes, people, systems or external events Legal risk: Contracts are not legally enforceable or documented incorrectly Credit risk: Counterparty defaulting in payment Pre-settlement: Credit risk before the maturity of a transaction Settlement risk: Timing differences in cash flows Country risk: Movement of funds across borders may be obstructed by sudden government controls Interest rate risk: Interest rate risk or gap risk arises out of adverse movement of interest rates a bank faces on its currency swaps/forward contracts or other interest rate derivatives Management of Risks Traditional measures adopted by bank managements to manage/limit risks are: •